According to the World Health Organization, a few periods back, diabetes was a rare disease, in both industrialized and emerging countries. Nowadays, the story is different. It is presently expected that over 143 million people global are affected by the disease. This figure is ever growing; by 2020 over 220 million people are predictable to be living with diabetes, if the existing trend continues.
In the United States alone, there are 18.2 million people (6.3 percent of the population) living with diabetes. However, another 13 million people have been diagnosed with diabetes. Unluckily, 5.2milion (or nearly one third) are unacquainted that they have the disease.
The figure for Nigeria is not willingly available, but it is assessed that over 1.5million people have diabetes in Nigeria. In industrialized countries, most patients of diabetes are over sixty years old, but in emerging countries, diabetes is found to affect people in their prime.
Definition of Diabetes
Diabetes Mellitus (or simply diabetes) is derived from the Greek word 'Diabeinein', which means 'To pass through' telling copious urination, and Mellitus from the Latin word which means 'Sweetened with honey'. These two words mean sugar in urine or sweetened urine.
Diabetes is a disease in which the body does not create or correctly use Insulin. Insulin is a hormone that is desirable, in the body, to control the amount at which starch, sugar, and other food are transformed into glucose necessary as energy for daily life. The hormone is formed and released into the blood by an organ called 'Pancreas'. This insulin aid to maintain the blood glucose monitor level within a standard range. The World Health Organization (WHO) puts this standard range between
60 - 100mg/dl (prior to taking any food for the day, henceforth this value is called Fasting Blood Glucose). In health, notwithstanding numerous demands for glucose in diverse situations, the blood glucose infrequently surpasses this value.
After a meal, the liver supplies the glucose from the meal as glycogen and discharges it into the blood in between meals. The role of insulin is the control of this storage and discharge of glucose. It make sure that the quantity of glucose in the blood at every precise time does not go beyond or below the normal array. Utilizing a blood sugar monitor these days is highly advisable.
TYPES OF DIABETES
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), five classes of diabetes are recognized, these are; , Gestational Diabetes, Bronze Diabetes, Diabetes Insipidus, Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM) or Type I Diabetes, and Non Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM) or Type II Diabetes.